Pea is an important crop product in China and plays an important role in China's agricultural economy. So how can peas grow to produce high yields? The following small series will introduce you to the high-yielding technology of peas.
1. Site selection
It is required to select a land with good soil fertility, convenient irrigation and drainage (fear of water accumulation) and no salt and alkali, pH 6.0-7.0. Requires more than 3 years of rotation, no heavy, cold weather, temperature 13-18 Â° C. Before the sowing, the oysters will be preserved, and the soil organic matter will be matured to ensure that the peas will be planted on time, and the base fertilizer (mainly farmyard manure) and herbicides can be combined with the tumbling.
2, variety selection
The selection of varieties should pay attention to climate characteristics, planting areas, planting patterns, planting uses, and seed sources.
Top Ling is best planted. When 15cm soil stabilizes through 0 Â°C, it can be sown to facilitate flower bud differentiation, multi-pod and multi-granule formation. More importantly, the flowering period can avoid the most sensitive high temperature stress period and achieve the purpose of increasing yield. Late sowing is not conducive to seed germination and later growth. The conventional wheat planter is required to be the main sowing tool. The sowing depth is 3-7cm, the depth of the well is not shallow, the sensation is good, the sowing depth is 4-5cm, the sputum is poor, and the sowing depth is 6-7cm. The sowing should be uniform and the soil should be strict. Under high water and fertilizer conditions, the planting density is 1.2 million plants/hm2; under low water and fertilizer conditions, the planting density is about 900,000 plants/hm2. The high-yield field has a sowing capacity of 180-225kg/hm2, and the medium-low-yield field has a sowing capacity of 150-180kg/hm2.
Pea is a favorite fertilizer crop. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium must be coordinated. It is necessary to apply less nitrogen fertilizer, apply more phosphorus fertilizer, make up potassium fertilizer (not to apply potassium chloride), molybdenum fertilizer has significant effect on peas, pay attention to the application of boron fertilizer, peas. Very sensitive to boron, boron deficiency will lead to flowering and unreal, seriously affecting crop yield. It is recommended to use a compound fertilizer with high phosphorus content. When the soil phosphorus content is 5.3 mg/kg, the P2O5 application standard is 135-180 kg/hm2, and when the soil potassium content is 90-180 mg/kg, the K2O application standard is 45-105 kg/hm2.
5, weed control
In order to effectively control weeds, it can be selected from trifluralin, diltan, zhongdingling, oatmeal, trifluoromethylaniline, pendimethalin, metolachlor, pusti, imazeth, race Ke et al.
6, pest control
The diseases include powdery mildew, downy mildew, brown spot, rust, blight, root rot, blight, sclerotial stem rot, etc. There are many kinds of pea disease symptoms, and there are many changes. There are five types, namely, discoloration. , necrosis, wilting, decay and deformity. Insects include Liriomyza, pea elephants, aphids, and pea pods.
6.1 Agricultural control
It is strictly forbidden to transfer seeds from infected areas and use disease-resistant varieties. Attention to rotation, high-stalk crops with dwarf crops, gramineae with legumes, hi-light crops with shade-tolerant crops, and land-crop crops. Peas belong to the cold season, need phosphorus, short crops, and generally have to rotate with wheat, barley, potatoes, corn, and vegetables. Rotating with non-legume crops for 2-4 years. After harvesting, plough the deep buried diseased body. Avoid farming operations when the plants are wet. In the spring, the old leaves and foot leaves of the fields, the weeds in the fields and the cultivated crops are removed in time to reduce the source of insects. After the vegetables are harvested, the leaves of the residual plants are treated in time to burn or manure, eliminate the wintering insects, reduce the number of the next generation, lower the winter base, timely plough and eliminate the weeds, and clear the weeds in the field.
6.2 Chemical control
Use sterile seeds or seed treatment. Pay attention to the field investigation in the field, master the prevention and treatment of pesticides when the larvae are first seen, and use the effective chemical agents to effectively use the fungicides at the beginning of the disease to achieve group defense and rule prevention. Emphasize an "early" word, prohibit the use of high-toxic, high-residue pesticides, 15 days before harvesting fresh pods should not be used. For pest control, 3% avermectin 2000 times liquid, 3% Avi high chlorine 2000 times liquid, 50% malathion emulsifiable oil 1000 times liquid, 50% sputum fog wettable powder 2000 times liquid, 10 % imidacloprid wettable powder 2500 times solution. Supplemented with penetrants such as silicone, spray 2-3 times alternately, spray once every 7-10d. If the damage is serious, increase the concentration of the drug appropriately, pay attention to the use of chemicals, and use all kinds of pesticides in strict accordance with the regulations. Interval. For the prevention and treatment of diseases, 200 times of Bordeaux mixture can be used, or 77% can kill 500 times of wettable microparticle powder, 30% of basic copper sulfate suspension 400-500 times, and 47% of ruinong wettable powder 800-900 times. Liquid, 70% thiophanate-methyl WP 1000 times solution + 75% chlorothalonil WP 1000 times solution, 40% polysulfur suspension 500 times solution, 41% special effect sterilization king 2000 times solution, 20% blue Di 500 times liquid spray control, spray once every 7-10d, a total of 2-3 times.
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